half the container. Dental Amalgam Col Kraig S. Vandewalle USAF Dental Evaluation & Consultation Service. amalgam substitutes for stress–bearing restorations in the permanent teeth cannot be recommended without caution. Recommended optimum condensation pressures were mainly derived from laboratory investigations and are between 10-20 MPa (=1-2 kp/mm^) (79). Applying an optimum force for the condensation has a great role in the process. A condenser is selected on the basis of its ability to remove excess mercury and to apply pressure needed for adaptation. - A freshly triturated spherical amalgam has a “mushy” feel, and a small condenser may push through the material, as a pool cue pushes through a box of ping-pong balls. Amalgam has to be condensed really heavy in a force of 2-5 Kg which you might have your face being moved, of which your dentist will need to stabilize it. Low tensile and compressive strength B. 2.7.4 Condense the amalgam with greatest confortable force. The filling is carved to reproduce the tooth anatomy. ... La force de compression à 24 heures est de 500 Mpa et le changement dimensionnel pendant le durcissement est de -0.03%. There is a report on mercury exposure and risks from dental amalgam which was released by Health Canada on November 27, 1995. The packing force, as determined by doing the packing on a balance, was such as to give a condensation pressure of approximately 65 kg/cm2. A corrosion-resistant dental alloy is disclosed which has improved handling characteristics during the filling of a dental cavity. i. Rinse and dry prep. Karen L. Comisi, RDA. [] Later, Li Shihchen (1578) chronicled a dental mixture of 100 parts mercury with 45 parts silver and 900 parts tin. Objectives: There is an obvious correlation between the quality of amalgam condensation and its mechanical properties. Less effort is needed than for hand condensation. No radiographic change C. Symptoms are similar to acute alveolar abscess Gingivectomy is recommended The most practical method to significantly reduce the setting time of stone and plaster is to use A 65 year old patient has a tendency for urinary tract stones. It has been shown that amalgam condensation under or close to in vivo conditions revealed condensation pressures significantly below those mentioned above (1, … 3) The force of the condensation should be towards the cavity details not towards the matrix band. by clinic staf, it is highly recommended to employ your equipment service technician. Less than 0.1 % C. Less than 0.01 % D. None of the above # In spherical alloys as compared to lathe cut: A. 2. bruxism. The cavities in Group II were etched for 15 s by using 37% phosphoric acid, rinsed, lightly dried to a moist surface followed by the application of PQ1 amalgam adhesive with an applicator tip. . 10. 4. inability to maintain a dry operating field For amalgam restorations, a 90 cavosurface angle accommodates the 1. condensing of amalgam. The early strength of the amalgam as indicated by the 1 hour tests is reduced even more than the final strength by reduction in the condensation force on the amalgam. Although the tested amalgam … Mechanical Condensation: Mechanical condensers provide vibration or impact type of force to pack the amalgam mix. Dr. Shikha Jaiswal , Subharti Dental College, SVSU . Overall, factors for optimum condensation involve force, area of the condenser tip, thickness of fresh Hg amalgam to which the force is being applied, burnishing action to incorporate Hg into the older amalgam, dwell time of each condensation contact and type of amalgam (sizes … ... what is the recommended condensing increments? This is particularly true if a dynamic force such as RPD is applied. A load of 2.7 to 4.5 kg should be used on a 1.5 or 2-mm plugger. 2) Eliminating voids and reducing the amount of ... layers is impossible. It suggests that the number of amalgam restorations should be limited to reduce the total daily average exposure of an individual to mercury from all sources (including food, water, air and dental amalgam). 4) Incremental placement and condensation. FACTORS AFFECTING STRENGTH Condensation: • For lathe cut amalgam, greater the condensation pressure higher the compressive strength. • Not recommended because of increased mercury levels in dental office. 5) Amalgam is carried into the cavity using amalgam carrier. All moulds were overfilled, and excess amalgam was cut off with a knife. The amalgam … Dental amalgam apparently was first used by the Chinese. Amalgam Management. a. Carving The amalgam is overfilled into the cavity and the mercury rich surface layer is trimmed away. 6-7, B). 4. Mercury. In the year 1843, the American Society of Dental Surgeons (ASDS), founded in New York City, declared use of amalgam to be malpractice because of the fear of mercury poisoning in patients and dentists and forced all its members to sign a pledge to abstain from using it. Less than 0.02 % B. Traditional condensation techniques are recommended. 5. Porosity: If time lapse between trituration and condensation is more, porosities are more and strength is less. 12. [] The poor condensation practice reduced the strength of product D only 2 per cent, but product B was reduced 14 per cent as a result of the variation in manipulation. What is the recommended for condensation of dental amalgam ? High tensile strength C. Low Hg: Alloy ratio D. Low creep. [] Increased force of condensation B. Removal of Hg rich amalgam during condensation of each ... CONDENSATION PRESSURE Condensation force- 13.3-17.8N(3 to 4lb). The amalgam waste material settles at the bottom of the container and A. a. recommended for low-stress- bearing restorations b. have low modulus of elasticity c. have a high modulus of elasticity d. a and b ... Admix amalgam requires more condensation force than spherical amalgam. A metallic powder composed of silver, tin, copper and zinc B. b. Dental amalgam has been used for over 150 years to fill the voids caused by tooth decay in millions of people. Normally, fracture in the amalgam occurs at the grain boundaries. Amalgam should be condensed in small increments with uniform force applied. HISTORY. 0.5 mm. The amalgam container is always full of waste luid and a varying level of amalgam waste material. Condensation pressure When a given force is applied,smaller the condenser greater the pressure exerted on the amalgam. # In non zinc containing dental amalgam alloy, the percentage of zinc present is : A. Good condensation is essential to successful amalgam restorations. ii. Decreased force of condensation C. Under or overtrituration D. Delay in time between trituration and condensation # Which of the following is untrue regarding exacerbation of Phoneix Abscess? A. Forces of 66.7 N (15 Lb) are recommended for condensation but it is doubtful that forces of this magnitude are used. Su Kung (659 AD) mentioned the use of a mixture in the Material Medica. 2. compressive strength of amalgam. Amalgam controversy and amalgam war. Amalgam means_____? For conventional amalgam restorations, cavosurface margins of 90 degrees are needed to minimize the potential for fracturing the enamel and amalgam during function. Later condensation (facially and lingually directed condentsation) is very important in the promixal box portions of the preparation to ensure confluence of the amalgam margins. Guidelines to minimize exposure to mercury and mercury vapor. Preserving unsupported enamel may facilitate matrix placement and improve amalgam condensation (Fig. A force applied to the hand condenser The cavities in Group I received a varnish application and the condensation of high-copper amalgam. Which of the following statements apply to condensation of amalgam? As a general rule, smaller amalgam condenser are used first. 40. ... •High condensation force needed due to lathe cut ... –recommended for spherical amalgams. 100% amalgam waste capacity of the container is approx. 11. [] It was the beginning of the amalgam war. a. [] In Europe, Johannes stokers, a municipal physician in Ulm, Germany, recommended amalgam as a filling material in 1528. Polishing •Increased smoothness •Decreased plaque retention •Decreased corrosion 34 •Use rapid vibration •Used where high condensation forces are required. Proper condensation of amalgam promotes adaptation of amalgam to the cavity walls and matrix band. The alloy is a substantially uniform blend of two types of particles having the same chemical components, but differing in morphology and, optionally, in proportions of components. • Spherical amalgam - light condensation pressure produces adequate strength. CONDENSATION : CONDENSATION Compacts alloy so that greatest possible density attained Hg rich amalgam brought on top of each increment Delayed condensation weaker amalgam Good isolation in zinc containing alloy Ultrasonic condensers not recommended … - Therefore, the resulting freshly triturated lathe-cut amalgam requires more force during condensation than is required with spherical particles. 3. lack of enamel at the gingival cavo-surface margin. The major factor influencing choices of material are moisture control (92.1%). Which of the following elements is a liquid at room temperature? c. 1.5mm. A. Tooth is tender on percussion B. During the condensation of the conventional amalgam mercury-rich material was removed before another increment was added. 1mm. List the following in order from start to finish for an Amalgam restoration. 3. tensile strength of amalgam. Condensation is usually started at entire or spherical alloy and 45 o to walls and floors for non spherical amalgam. 6) Use of suitable sized condensers (slightly smaller than cavity width). A. b. Place 2 coats of Varnish to clean, dry internal tooth surfaces. 3 pounds C. 35 pounds D. 25 lb. A. Finish the cavosurface margins. Which is not true about high copper amalgam alloys_____? Less condensing force is required B. 15 lb B. More condensing force is required C. Both require same condensing force D. Manipulation is easy triturated amalgam will form into a bright homogeneous plastic mass. Radiographic examination shows generalized loss of the lamina dura and a “ground glass” appearance of the bone. True about high copper amalgam alloys_____ lack of enamel at the gingival cavo-surface margin knife. Are more and strength is less staf, It is highly recommended to employ your equipment Service.... 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